Sunday, April 19, 2015

The Top 6 Misconceptions About DNA

Here area unit the highest half dozen misconceptions regarding desoxyribonucleic acid and a few corrective observations.

1. desoxyribonucleic acid could be a chemical
More properly, desoxyribonucleic acid (deoxyribonucleic acid) could be a molecule of supermolecule.

2. DNA is simply found in humans
No, it is found throughout all living things in nature, although after all it differs in terms of its cryptography from one physical structure to a different.
For example, if you have got any pet animals they'll even have desoxyribonucleic acid.

3. Life cannot exist while not desoxyribonucleic acid
This is a awfully difficult one as a result of you'll argue for a awfully protracted amount of your time regarding whether or not things like viruses area unit alive or not.
If you are doing believe that viruses represent life, then the statement is not entirely correct. Some viruses do contain desoxyribonucleic acid whereas others don't and use instead ribonucleic acid (Ribonucleic acid) as how of human activity genetic info. HIV is one example of a pandemic that doesn't contain desoxyribonucleic acid.
Theoreticians have conjointly speculated as to whether or not additional advanced life might develop while not desoxyribonucleic acid Associate in Nursingd some area unit convinced that there is no reason why an different mechanism for passing on genetic info might not have developed elsewhere. This is a prime discussion point amongst the scientific community debating whether extra-terrestrial life exists.

The Top 6 Misconceptions About DNA

4. it's difficult to extract DNA
No, it isn't.
In fact, the basic chemistry behind the processes is now relatively simple and related experiments are often conducted in many schools as part of their science lessons.

5. it's solely helpful, in Associate in Nursing applied sense, in rhetorical work
To the contrary, understanding desoxyribonucleic acid and probably mistreatment that understanding to get treatments, is one among the fastest-growing and probably most promising areas of medical analysis these days. A whole vary of treatments seem to be breaking through from this space.
It is conjointly proving to be very helpful in understanding the biological process history of varied human and different animal populations round the world. this can be generally spoken as DNA-archaeology or DNA-anthropology etc.
More commercially, organisations area unit currently secret writing distinctive desoxyribonucleic acid markers into merchandise so as to confirm that they can't be simply or fruitfully be faked and counterfeited. These area unit generally spoken as "brand integrity solutions."

6. you'll use desoxyribonucleic acid at birth to forecast all the sicknesses somebody can get as they age
Unfortunately, you can't.
Although usually|this can be} often delineate in phantasy novels and films, at the present time it is only possible to analyse the DNA of a newly born child to look for a relatively small number of certain identified problems that will mean that he or she will develop a certain condition in the future.
In different things, it's currently understood that sure genetic combos will mean that the individual involved can have sure genetic predispositions towards a condition later in life. that is off from an equivalent factor as stating that bioscience will presently say with certainty that they'll develop those conditions.
A number of sicknesses in life area unit associated with life-style selections or the misfortune of studying one thing infectious. These could also be entirely unrelated to your genes. So, as not all sicknesses and conditions area unit directly associated with biological science they can't be foretold by analysis at birth.

Saturday, April 18, 2015

Dinosaurs: Why People Collect Fossils

Some individuals could realize it strange why people would wish to gather archosaurian reptile fossils. The truth is, it can be considered to a small degree morbid or more over pointless, as you'll see such fine quality collections during a repository which might be on the far side the large majority's value vary. therefore the question has got to be, gazing such an outsized vary of people from young to previous, why do such a large amount of individuals have archosaurian reptile fossil collections.

Like most queries there's usually over one answer, in truth there will be several and this question is no completely different, specifically after you raise the collectors themselves. therefore here area unit a few of my favorite reasons why individuals have dino fossil collections.

Reason one: it is a family affair

Most children love dinosaurs, thence the success of films such as the Jurassic period Park series and archosaurian reptile toy brands Papo, Bullyland and hunting expedition. With this interest comes the terribly real data that dinosaurs area unit extinct. therefore if you would like one thing real in relevance a archosaurian reptile then fossils area unit your solely real selection. I personally know many fathers and mothers who started collecting fossils to possess something fun to try to to with their children. An interest that meets the necessities and inspiration of parent and child. Often this hobby continues and grow just like any other hobby.

Dinosaurs: Why People Collect Fossils

Reason two: could not be from now on distinctive if you tried

If you want to own a 'one of a kind' item than there isn't anything better than a dinosaur fossil. Sure there are innumerable teeth from a similar species or bone parts, but the fact is each one is unique. to feature to the present you furthermore mght got to bear in mind this is often a true piece of history, not from a war or important human event, however instead one thing that is virtually millions of years previous, prehistoric in fact, supplying you with the chance to the touch the past, and behold the splendour of creation.

Reason three: everybody desires a hobby

Most people have a hobby, from aggregation china to jewelry, but fossil aggregation is as smart as any of them. You know the item you want, that specific tooth or that bone type, but there's getting the right one for you and once you've got it, it becomes the centre piece of your assortment that you will with pride show in your house.

Reason four: It's a lot of than you thought

When you own a bit of pre-history, such as a dinosaur fossil, you'll analysis the archosaurian reptile it came from. I will tell you something else, a lot of and a lot of facts area unit kicking off annually concerning these wonderful creatures which means your data simply keeps on growing and then do the surprises, as an example, T-Rex may well have had feathers.

The truth is fossils area unit associate degree wonderful reminder to all of North American country of previous periods of the earth's history. every item carries a mystery, a discovery and several queries. however did this archosaurian reptile live, when was it alive and the way did it die? Once you've an image in your head you would like to ask more questions like what was the environment like and the way did it interact with its own species et al of its time. These question makes your fossil piece of nice price, not least of all because of the time travel it's been through to reach you, and once you look at it you can realise simply however stunning it is.

Friday, April 17, 2015

Biological Oxygen Demand in Pharmaceuticals

Biological atomic number 8 demand, BOD, is that the quantity of dissolved atomic number 8 that aerobic organisms in an exceedingly water sample need therefore on break down the organic material therein sample.

Bacteria that consume atomic number 8 want to decompose this organic material. As organic material is decomposed, atomic number 8 is depleted. This loss of atomic number 8 happens as a result of aerobic microorganism, oxygen consuming bacteria, in eating or feeding on this organic waste as a source of energy they consume oxygen. The more organic waste that they get the more they grow and multiply and metabolize the waste and also the result's that more oxygen is consumed. It is this high quantity of organic load that sucks up or demands a high-volume of atomic number 8 to be rotten. because the organic waste is degraded, and it becomes less, the consequence of that is a fall in the quantity of dissolved atomic number 8. a lot of pollution introduces a lot of organic matter. As this organic matter is degraded, it places a high demand on oxygen; as this oxygen is consumed there's less dissolved oxygen within the system.

To live this biological atomic number 8 demand, a bottle is submerged beneath the surface and allowed to fill with water. whereas still below the surface the bottle is capped. 2 samples area unit taken on day one. In one instrumentality, the extent of dissolved atomic number 8 is measured victimization probes or titrations. the opposite bottle is wrapped in AN opaque liner ANd placed in an apparatus at twenty degrees uranologist for 5 days. On day five, the dissolved atomic number 8 level within the second bottle is measured. The distinction in dissolved atomic number 8 levels between day one and day 5 could be a live of the organic chemistry atomic number 8 demand. the number of dissolved atomic number 8 needed to interrupt down the organic material during this given volume of water through aerobic biological activity.

If frame is high, the number of atomic number 8 in an exceedingly system is low as a results of the high organic load that needs to be rotten by microorganism. as a result of variations in tolerance solely sure styles of macroinvertebrates will thrive during this atomic number 8 disadvantaged surroundings. the variety ANd abundance of those macroinvertebrates also can be used as an indicator of water quality. A typical protocol for the kick sampling needs you to put world wide web downstream of your body and to kick twenty times into world wide web.

A well-known index for learning water quality, in terms of biological atomic number 8 demand, is that the river organic phenomenon index. In employing a organic phenomenon index, there is no want to monitor water quality directly, for the presence of sure styles of indicator species would tell you concerning the degree of atomic number 8. Caddis fly larvae, as an example, thrive in high oxygen environments. therefore the presence of giant amounts of caddis fly larvae in your sample would be AN indirect means of language that the dissolved atomic number 8 levels area unit high. The presence of dragonfly larvae suggests that dissolved oxygen levels is also in an exceedingly medium type level; not very high but also not very low. a good abundance of bloodworms or midge larvae indicates water that includes a very high level of pollution usually from sewage outfalls. The trend index could be a quick way of using the presence of certain easy to watch macroinvertebrates make inferences about the degree of dissolved oxygen supported the abundance and variety of the indicator species.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Forbidden Archeology (Science)

In recent years, discoveries are created everywhere the globe that show that thought anthropology must be revised. the first history of man on this earth is also radically completely different then however we tend to historically read it.

The long accepted theory of human evolution is that man evolved from the monkeys and apes ample years ago. Brain size redoubled. once the Neanderthals became extinct, Homo sapiens became the sole human species. throughout this time- man migrated to varied continents on the earth.

After Homo sapiens took dominance on the world, he gradually developed societies, agriculture. He domesticated animals and extremely slowly developed science and technology. This industrial revolution was sped up tremendously with the beginning of the commercial revolution within the mid 19th century and continues to the present day.

This is the accepted view. typically anyone UN agency challenged or disagreed with this timeline was ridiculed and looked upon with contempt.

Forbidden Archeology (Science)

Recent proof but can not be unnoticed. Discoveries are multiplying recently that shows there's associate alternate history of man on earth.
Evidences are many but i need to point out three findings specially.

Dinosaurs purportedly died out sixty five,000,000 years ago from an asteroid. Well, there square measure fossilised remains that show archosaurian reptile and human footprints in the same rock strata, which means dinosaurs and man co-existed at a similar time. Incredible! what is more, there are stone carvings made by humans in ancient temples which show carvings of dinosaurs. however did these folks thousands of years past apprehend regarding dinosaurs once they were not "discovered" by archeologists till the nineteenth century?

The Sumerian civilization of the Middle East existed around two,000 B.C. Their knowledge of astronomy was incredible. They carved on stone tablets the planets of the scheme. All 9 planets were diagrammatic, together with a attainable tenth - Planet X. What is stunning is that four of the outer planets were not known at the time. they may not be seen while not a telescope that solely came into use within the seventeenth century.
How did they apprehend of this?

The civilization of Republic of India is around half-dozen,000 years recent or presumably older. There square measure ancient Sanskrit texts around this point that describe "flying machines". These were known as vimanas- machines that might fly by neutralizing the force of gravity mistreatment liquid mercury or alternative propellants. Written illustrations were manufactured from them.

This after all was several centuries before the Wright brothers and everybody else in trendy history!

There square measure several alternative evidences of either super civilizations within the past or aliens UN agency interacted with man to assist him develop technology and gain data.

Other alternate theories of human pre- history on the earth ought to be respected and not dismissed as nonsense by mainstream archeologists. The proof is changing into too nice to not think about alternative theories.

As author Graham American Revolutionary leader aforementioned - "We square measure a species with memory loss, we've got forgotten a serious a part of our past".

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Anatomi Alat Reproduksi Manusia

Hormon Pada Pria


Dihasilkan oleh sel interstisial yg terletak diantara tubulus seminiferus. Sel ini berjumlah sedikit pada bayi dan anak,tetapi banyak pada pria dewasa. Setelah pubertas, sel interstisial banyak menghasilkan hormone testosterone yg disekresi oleh testis. Sebagian besar testosterone berikatan longgar dgn protein plasma yang terdapat dalam darah dan sebagian terikat pada jaringan yg dibuahi dalam sel menjadi dehidrasi testosterone. Testosteron yg tidak terikat pada jaringan dgn cepat diubah oleh hati menjadi aldosteron dan dehidroepialdosteron. Konjugasi ini disekresi dalam usus melalui empedu kedalam urin. Fungsi Testosteron adalah sbb :
  1. Efek desensus ( penempatan ) testis. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa testosterone merupakan hal yg penting untuk perkembangan seks pria selama kehidupan manusia dan merupakan factor keturunan.
  2. Perkembangan seks primer dan sekunder. Sekresi testosterone setelah pubertas menyebabkan penis,testis, dan skrotum membesar sampai usia 20 tahun serta mempengaruhi pertumbuhan sifat seksual sekunder pria mulai pada masa pubertas.

Masa pubertas pada wanita merupakan masa produktif yaitu masa untuk mendapatkan keturunan, yang berlangsung 40 tahun. Setelah itu wanita memasuki masa klimakterium yaitu masa peralihan antara masa reproduksi dengan masa senium ( kemunduran ), dimana haid berangsur-angsur berhenti selam 1-2 bulan dan kemudian berhenti sama sekali, yang disebut menopause. Selanjutnya terjadi kemunduran alat-alat reproduksi, organ tubuh, dan kemampuan fisik.


Pada wanita yang sehat dan tidak hamil, setiap bulan secara teratur mengeluarkan darah dari alat kandungannya yang disebut menstruasi ( haid ). Pada siklus menstruasi, selaput lendir rahim terjadi perubahan-perubahan yg berulang-ulang dari hari ke hari. Selama 1 bulan mengalami 4 masa ( stadium ).

Fisiologi Alat Reproduksi Wanita

1. Stadium menstruasi ( desquamasi ).

Pada masa ini, endometrium terlepas dari dinding rahim disertai perdarahan, hanya lapisan tipis yg tertinggal disebut stratum basale. Stadium ini berlangsung selama 4 hari. Melalui haid, keluar darah, potongan-potongan endometrium, dan lendir dari serviks. Darah ini tidak membeku karena adanya fermen ( biokatalisator ) yg mencegah pembekuan darah dan mencairkan potongan-potongan mukosa. Banyak perdarahan selam haid 50cc.

2. Stadium post menstruum ( regenerasi ).

Luka yg terjadi karena endometrium terlepas, lalu berangsur-angsur ditutup kembali oleh selaput lendir baru dari sel epitel kelenjar endometrium.  Pada masa ini, tebal endometrium kira-kira 0,5mm. Stadium ini berlangsung selam 4 hari.

3. Stadium inter menstruum ( proliferasi ).

Pada masa ini, endometrium tumbuh menjadi tebal 3,5mm, kelenjar-kelenjarnya tumbuh lebih cepat dari jaringan lain. Stadium ini berlangsung 5-14 hari dari hari pertama haid.

4. Stadium pra menstruum ( sekresi )

Pada stadium ini, endometrium tetap tebal, tetapi bentuk kelenjar berubah menjadi panjang dan berliku-liku serta mengeluarkan getah. Dalam endometrium telah tertimbun glikogen dan kapur yg diperlukan sebagai makanan untuk sel telur. Perubahan ini dilakukan untuk mempersiapkan endometrium dalam menerima sel telur.